This paper will give you an opportunity to evaluate a failed organizational change, identify a theory that could have been used to develop the change, and aapply that theory to the failed change. The paper must follow these standards:be 7-8 pages of content in lengthhave at least three outside professional resourcesfollow APA standardsOrganizational
Dr. Charles Poplos, PMP
Organizational Change Management
• Organized, systematic application of
– Knowledge
– Tools
– Resources of change
• To provide organizations with a key process to
achieve their business strategy
Difference Between Project and
Change Management
• Project Management focus is on specific
project activities and deliverables
• Change Management focus is on the impact
the project will have on the organization
• Project Management – the change
• Change Management – getting the change
Essential Components

Sponsor Management
End-user Communication
Transition Planning
Resistance Management
Sponsor Management
• Sponsor is key
• CM team works to produce
the Sponsor Roadmap
– Let the sponsor know about
expectations, and
– How the sponsor can help
achieve success
End-user Communication
• Permeate the gaining organization’s hierarchy
with change information
– Keep them informed
– Get them ready for the impact
– Make them comfortable
• Readiness involves
• Analyzing an organization to identify
– The current state
– The future desired state,
– What is required to move from one state to the other
• Organizations need to understand
– The specific impacts the new system will have on their own internal
– To prepare proactively for those impacts
• Training plays a critical role in
helping the gaining organization
adapt the new processes,
hardware, software, etc. into
their operations
• CM Team performs training
needs analysis
– Determines the training strategy
– Helps manage the training plan
– Identifies the skill gaps of the
affected end-user community
• The CM team works with
supervisors to ensure they are
aware of the
– Project or what is being changed
– Impacts
– Expectations of them
• The coaching effort can range from
– Coaching info sheets to
– Formal meetings with
managers/supervisors to advise
them on how best to coach their
Transition Planning
• Transition Planning involves
– Preparing the organization to support the new system once the change is
– The team
• Reviews the skills necessary to support the new system
• Works with individuals on the production side to develop transition plans
to successfully support the new application
– Users may

Require Training
Require remedial training in related skill sets
Need to acquire entirely new skill sets
Will have job reclassification issues
Resistance Management
• A resistance management plan is a proactive
approach to managing resistance
• It is important to identify potential resistance
points by defining
– What resistance may look like
– How to identify resistance
– How to mitigate the impact of resistance
In General
• Change Management
– Manages change as a process
– Recognizes that projects deal with people
– Helps people through the change with open and
honest communication
– Provides awareness of the new environment
– Ensuring readiness to function competently
Preparation For Major Change
• It is important for
organizations to
– Impacts the
implementation will have
on their own internal
• And to
– Prepare proactively for
those impacts
• Organizational Change
Management is
concerned with:
– Managing change as a
process and recognizing
that people are the focus
– Providing direct,
knowledgeable, and
frequent communication
The Change Problem
• Change problem is
– Some future state to be
– Some current state to be left
– A some structured, organized
process for getting from the
one to the other
Change Answers Three Questions
• How do we make the change?
• What needs to be changed?
• Why is it being changed?
How Do We Make The Change?
• How do we get people to
– Be more open?
– Assume more responsibility?
– Be more creative?
What Needs To Be Changed?

What are we trying to accomplish?
What changes are necessary?
What indicators will signal success?
What standards apply?
What measures of performance are we trying
to affect?
Why Is It Being Changed?
• Frequently chains and networks of business
must be traced out before one finds the “true”
reason for a change effort
• CM wants to find the ultimate purposes of
functions and find new and better ways of
performing them
– Why do we do what we do?
– Why do we do it the way we do it?
The Theories

Satir’s Change Process Model
Kubler-Ross Stages of Change Model
Kotter’s Phases of Change Model
Lewin’s Dynamic Stability Model
Prosci Change Management Model
Satir’s Change Process Model
• Satir’s change model is one of many tools
she invented to enhance communication
and encourage growth
– “Change” is the project announcement which
leads to a period of uncertainty, chaos, and
productivity decreases
– As people learn more and receive
training/coaching, their productivity begins to
– There is a period of flux until the new system
becomes the status quo.
Kubler-Ross Stages of Change Model
• Describes the process
by which people deal
with grief
– Significant changes in
the working
environment can bring
about a form of grief
Kubler-Ross Stages of Change Model
• Five stages
– Denial: The initial stage: “It can’t be happening.”
– Anger: “Why ME? It’s not fair?!” Recognition of changes in the day-today routine, perceived (or real) loss of prestige, power, knowledge,
movement to the new state where things are unfamiliar and
– Bargaining: “Just let me live to see my son graduate.” A sense of “just
leave me alone”, or “just don’t change this one particular thing too”.
Sometimes expressed as “as long as I don’t lose anything”, or “just
make sure I get the training I need”.
– Depression: “I’m so sad, why bother with anything?” When a system
first implements feelings like “this is too hard”, “this is too slow”, “this
takes too much work”, and “this is stupid” are not uncommon.
– Acceptance: “It’s going to be OK.” Once people get used to the new
system, they begin to accept it, and in time will defend it as strongly as
they defended the old system.
• Kotter’s change
phases model
deals with the
phases of change
Lewin’s Dynamic Stability Model
• Refers to “unfreezing, changing, and
– It gives rise to thinking about a staged approach to
changing things. Looking before you leap is usually
sound practice.
• Using Lewin’s approach as a starting point
– Most change associated with projects comes from
the envisioning of some future state yet to be
– To arrive at the “to be” state, it is important to
understand the “as is” state.
Prosci Change Management Model
• Prosci
– Is a nationally recognized research
and development company that
specializes in bench-marking change
management best practices
– Has made a significant step forward in
the integration of organizational
change management and project
– Released its Change Management
• Following eight years of
research with over 1000
Prosci Change Management Model
• Built into the process are scalable and
flexible components for customizing OCM
activities to the specific organizational
change being implemented
– ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge,
Ability, Reinforcement) system for
working through change
• Includes
– Tools to perform organizational analysis
– Templates which can be customized to
aid the process of preparing
organizations for change
Selecting a Change Strategy

Degree of resistance
Target population
The stakes
Time frame
Organizational Strategy
Basic Change Management Steps
• Provide awareness of the change that is going to occur
• Ensure there is understanding about why the change needs to happen and
the benefits of that change
• Facilitate acceptance of the change
• Act as someone who cares, listens, and responds to individual needs and
• Manage people and expectations
• Assist people to use their insights, skills, and sense of values to move
forward with organization/team efforts.
In Summary
• Organizational Change Management is an important part of any process
• Getting the people to accept the change is essential in project success
• Organizational change management is made up of seven essential

Sponsor management
End-user communication
Transition Planning
Resistance Management
In Summary
• Change Management
– helps answer the question “how are we going to move from this
current state to the future state?”
– is drawn from the fields of psychology, sociology, business
administration, economics, industrial engineering, systems
engineering, and the study of human and organizational behavior
• Change Management and Project Management must work
together to ensure project success and acceptance of the
change brought about by new systems

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