Imagine waking up one day and finding that you are the only survivor of a plane crash in the deep heart of Africa. and imagine that to your amazement, the Queen of the tribe herself is interested in your quick and complete recovery. her reason, you later find out, is her viewing you as the god’s timely answer to her latest dilemma. you see, she had a very beloved white whale pet, Shammooee who brought her luck and prosperity that she kept in a huge private and elaborate pool. the tragedy is that Shammooee passed away not too long ago after a long and painful illness. the queen was very saddened by missing her pet and was only consoled by baby Shammooaa, yap, you guessed, Shamooee’s only offspring.all would be good and acceptable, except the fact that Shammooaa was an ill mannered and spoiled fish. she threw tantrum fits if she didn’t get her favorite treats (to which of course all the tribe’s women and men saved for her religiously just to stop these continuous tantrum fits and keep the queen pleased.)in any case, the queen is under the impression that westerners attend what is called “school” that teach them precisely how to train this rude fish to behave and love her queen, just like her sweet mother.the rewards for your success in shaping this fish’s behavior are great: including a special ship that will bring you back home safely. and the punishment for failing are horrible (dinner for Shammooaa is only the joyful end:-)so what are you supposed to do for this post you ask? ok, tell us please, how you would apply one (or more) of the theories on learning discussed in the text (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning) to produce a new and improved shammooaa–make the queen happy and save your neck.soon, shammooaa is the obedient and playful fish; ready for any commands including jumping through fire circles, throwing balls and dancing with her tail in the air, and you on her majesty’s magnificent ship heading home.due date: june 23.Introducing Psychology
Second Edition
Schacter · Gilbert · Wegner
Chapter 7
Prepared by
Melissa S. Terlecki, Ph.D.
Cabrini College, PA
the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or
responses from experience, which result in
a relatively permanent change in the state
of the learner
There are two main approaches to learning:
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Other types of learning also include observational
learning and learning outside of awareness (implicit
The Development of Classical Conditioning:
Pavlov’s Experiments
Classical conditioning: a phenomenon that occurs when a neutral
stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus
that naturally produces a response; first studied by Ivan Pavlov
Unconditioned stimulus (US): something that reliably produces
a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
Unconditioned response (UR): a reflexive reaction that is
reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus (CS): a stimulus that is initially neutral and
produces no reliable response in an organism
Conditioned response (CR): a reaction that resembles an
unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned
Figure 7.1
Pavlov’s Apparatus for Studying Classical
Figure 7.2
The Elements of Classical Conditioning
Why do some dogs seem to know when it’s
The Basic Principles of
Classical Conditioning
Acquisition: the
phase of classical
when the CS and
the US are
recovery: the
tendency of a
learned behavior
to recover from
extinction after a
rest period
Extinction: the
conditioning in which the
elimination of a
stimulus that functions as learned response
the US is actually the CS
that occurs when
from an earlier procedure the US is no longer
in which it acquired its
ability to produce
Discrimination: the
Generalization: a
capacity to
process in which the CR distinguish between
is observed, even
similar but distinct
though the CS is slightly
different from the
original one used during
Conditioned Emotional Responses:
The Case of Little Albert
John Watson (1878-1958),
alongside assistant Rosalie
Rayner, conditioned a 9month-old baby (Albert) to
fear a white rat by striking
a steel bar whenever he
was presented with the rat.
The work was ethically
Little Albert also showed
stimulus generalization.
Positive emotions can also
become associated.
Why did Albert fear the
The Development of Operant Conditioning:
The Law of Effect
Law of effect: the principle that behaviors that are
followed by a “satisfying state of affairs” tend to be
repeated and those that produce an “unpleasant state of
affairs” are less likely to be repeated
Figure 7.7
The Law of
What is the
behavior and
B.F. Skinner: The Role of Reinforcement
and Punishment
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) stated that behaviors operate on the
environment; demonstrated by using the Skinner box, or operant
conditioning chamber.
Operant behavior: behavior that an organism produces that has
some impact on the environment
Figure 7.8
Skinner Box
B.F. Skinner: The Role of Reinforcement
and Punishment
Reinforcer: any stimulus or event that
functions to increase the likelihood of
the behavior that led to it; generally
more effective than punishment in
promoting learning
Primary reinforcers satisfy
biological needs, and secondary
reinforcers are associated with
primary reinforcers.
Punisher: any stimulus or
event that functions to
decrease the likelihood of the
behavior that led to it
Why is reinforcement
more constructive than
punishment in learning
desired behavior?
Observational Learning: Look at Me
Observational learning: a
condition in which learning
takes place by watching the
actions of others
o We rely on
observational learning
to demonstrate desired
Observational Learning in
Surgical Training
Observational Learning: Look at Me
Albert Bandura (1925-) studied aggression in
observational learning using the Bobo doll experiment
and adult models.
o Children imitated adult behaviors and were sensitive
to the consequences of their aggressive behavior.
Diffusion chain: a phenomenon that occurs when
individuals initially learn a behavior by observing
another individual perform that behavior, and then
serve as a model from which other individuals learn the
Figure 7.14
Beating Up Bobo
What did the Bobo doll
Why might a younger
experiment show about
sibling appear to learn
children and aggressive
faster than a firstbehavior?

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