Chapter 13

1. What is the definition of ethics? Give examples of relative and absolute ethics.
2. What is the meaning of gratuity in the context of police agencies? Why might police officers be permitted to accept them, per the model developed by Withrow and Dailey?
3. In what ways can judges, defense attorneys, and prosecutors engage in unethical behaviors?
4. How may corrections officers be unethical?

Chapter 14

1. What major occurrences accompanied the early development of labor relations in the criminal justice system?
2. What are some of the main principles of shared governance involving the “navigating the waters” of unionization?
3. What are the three basic models used in the states to decide whether and which public sector employees will have collective bargaining rights? How does each of these models operate?
4. What are some of the major disciplinary policies that need to be maintained?  Accepting and dealing with citizen complaints? Maintaining due process requirements?
5. What is positive (progressive) discipline? What would be an example of how it functions? 

Chapter 15

1. Review some of the recent effects of the nation’s fiscal crisis on police, courts, and corrections organizations.
2. Discuss the definition of a budget and its uses.
3. Discuss what is involved in each of the four steps of a budgeting cycle.
4. Identify the potential pitfalls in budgeting issues that criminal justice administrators must address.13 As the late U.S. attorney general and U.S. Senator Robert Kennedy once informed a law school class where he was guest lecturing, by the time one reaches the point of being a college or university student, hopefully he or she (and, it might be added, everyone who is studying the field of criminal justice) will have a deeply ingrained desire to practice exemplary and ethical behavior. Ethical behavior is often emphasized in postsecondary education in the form of instructors explaining the need for academic honesty. Later, at some point in your life, it will likely be emphasized in terms of how you are to conduct yourself in terms of dealing with others as well as perhaps with the property and responsibility that has been entrusted to you.

“Character,” it might be said, “is who we are when no one is watching.” Unfortunately, character cannot be trained at the police or corrections academy, or in law school, or given to someone intravenously, or in a pill. Character and ethical conduct, for criminal justice personnel, means that they would never betray their oath of office, their public trust, or their badge. Indeed, as is indicated by several practitioners in boxed exhibits throughout this book, character and ethics are sine qua non for these persons—without those attributes, nothing else matters. These qualities constitute the foundation of their occupation and will certainly affect the manner in which they carry out their public safety duties.

At its root, then, criminal justice administration is about people and activities; in the end, the primary responsibilities of administrators involve monitoring subordinates’ activities to ensure that they act correctly relative to their tasks and responsibilities and that these duties and responsibilities are carried out in an acceptable and effective manner. Therefore, this chapter is essentially concerned with what constitutes correct behavior in the administration of criminal justice. Individuals and organizations have standards of conduct. To understand organizations, it is important to comprehend these standards and their etiology.

The chapter opens with a glimpse into the kinds of ethical situations criminal justice employees experience, providing three scenarios based on actual cases. Then, we discuss ethics in general, reviewing philosophical foundations and types of ethics. Next, we examine ethics in policing. Because of the nature of their contacts with the public and the unique kinds of vices, crimes, and temptations to which they are directly exposed, the police are given a high degree of attention; included here are problems such as the “slippery slope,” lying and deception, the receipt of gratuities, and greed and temptation. Also emphasized and examined here is a relatively new and powerful—and possibly career-ending—area of police ethics, which is an outgrowth of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Brady v. Maryland.1 We then also examine ethical considerations as they apply to courts

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