Can you write me 1500-word papers (500-word for each topic)? Please find the attachment below for the assignment questions. I will provide you with the lecture notes.
Can you write me 1500-word papers (500-word for each topic)? Please find the attachment below for the assignment questions. I will provide you with the lecture notes.
For the first report, can you choose three topics from the subjects I’ve covered and in each case make a comparison between Britain and Japan. You should make use of material from the classes, but also add your own ideas and maybe research (but if you use other sources, please be sure to list them at the end). W rite about 500 words on each of the 3 topics, to make a report about 1,500 words in all.
Can you write me 1500-word papers (500-word for each topic)? Please find the attachment below for the assignment questions. I will provide you with the lecture notes.
Week 7 ENGLISH HUMOUR INTRODUCTION: READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS People often say that humour is the most difficult thing to appreciate in another culture. Nevertheless, certain things are found funny in almost every country around the world (humour connected with personal dignity, body functions, etc.). In this class try and relax and enjoy what you see—it’s meant to be entertaining! People who visit Britain often say things like: “The British make jokes all the time. I never know whether they’re serious or not.” Certainly humour is very important in British culture, and the ability to tell jokes well and say spontaneous funny things is greatly admired. The British often laugh at the Germans for having no sense of humour, and at the Americans for having no sense of irony. Every night many of the programmes on British television are comedy programmes. This class will not give you a general theory about British humour, because there is not one. Instead, we will look at a number of different things that the British laugh at, and think about why and how humour works. Make sure that you enjoy at least one good laugh! Make sure you know the words irony, farce and chandelier. 1) Misunderstandings / miscommunication—The Pink Panther (1963-1982) One of the most universal foundations for humour involves people misunderstanding each other, whether because of language, culture or personality differences. Misunderstandings are usually a key ingredient of FARCE, and farce has been a central part of British comedy for hundreds of years. Between 1963 and 1982, six Pink Panther films were made with the famous British comedian, Peter Sellers (1925-80), playing the central role of the French detective Inspector Jacques Clouseau. Sellers developed a very funny, and very influential, way of speaking English with a French accent, and this became part of the joke: other characters in the films, even those supposed to be French, regularly fail to understand him. But in the scene we’ll watch, Clouseau is in England, as part of an investigation. This is from the last film in the series, The Trail of the Pink Panther (1982) 2) Class Comedy—Only Fools and Horses (1981-1991) A lot of humour is connected with the differences between people. A lot of British humour is especially focused on differences of social class. Only Fools and Horses is a BBC comedy made regularly between 1981 and 1991, with a number of “specials” made since then. It has been repeatedly voted the greatest British TV comedy. The most successful episode ever, broadcast in 1996, was watched by over 24,000,000 people—over 40% of the population of Britain. The central character is “Del Boy” (Derek), a working-class market trader who dreams of getting rich and moving “up” in society. He lives with his young brother, Rodney, and their grandfather, in a council flat in Peckham, south London. The episode “A Touch of Glass” was first broadcast on 2 December 1982 and was the first episode to get more than 10,000,000 viewers (about 20% of the population of Britain). In this episode Del and Rodney become acquainted with a Lord and Lady (i.e. people at the very top of society), and learn that they need to have their antique chandeliers cleaned and repaired. Del pretends that they are experts in restoring chandeliers, so they obtain a contract to clean and repair them. Their first problem is to get them down from the ceiling—with the help of Granddad. Del: Come on, we better get up there. (They start climbing the ladders.) You alright Rodney? Is there anything you want? Rodney: Yeah, I want to go home. This ladder is none too safe. Del: The ladder’s alright. Look, this is the chance I’ve been waiting for. Now don’t let me down, Rodney, now don’t let me down. Alright? (Shouting.) Alright Granddad, we’re ready. You can start undoing it now. Granddad: It’s coming, Del Boy. One more turn, Del. Del: Right, now brace yourself Rodney. Brace yourself. 3) Laughing at Negativity (and Foreigners!)—A Bit of Fry and Laurie (1989-1995) People sometimes say that the British complain a lot—which in some ways is true. But there is also a strong feeling in Britain that you should enjoy and appreciate the good things you have. People who fail to do this are often laughed at. Stephen Fry and Hugh Laurie are two of the most famous comedians and television personalities in Britain. Their TV show, A Bit of Fry and Laurie, was produced in the early 1990s, and is considered by some critics (including your teacher) to be some of the best British comedy ever. In this sketch a television interviewer (Stephen Fry) interviews a French/German racing car driver (Hugh Laurie) who has just won a big race. Interviewer: Michael, you must be very thrilled with that result. Take us through the race. Michael: Yes, well I was not very happy with the car. And we had a lot of problems. And the car was not so good, I think. Interviewer: Yes, but you won! That’s a great result for you. You must be very happy. Michael: Well, we had a lot of problems with the car. And I was not so happy. It was very hard. Interviewer: Yes, but you won! JAPANESE HUMOUR According to the article on “Humour” published in the Encyclopedia Britannica in 1974, “the humour of the Japanese is astonishingly mild and poetical, like weak, mint-flavoured tea.” This is certainly wrong! Actually Japan has long traditions of bawdy, vulgar, parodic, satirical, and nonsensical humour that are just as “strong” as the same traditions in Europe. The misunderstanding results in part from the fact that after the 1850s the Japanese generally tried to present themselves as serious, conservative, polite, and artistic to the West. Moreover, Western perceptions of Japan are still strongly influenced by observations made in the period 1868-1945, which was the worst time ever for humour in Japan. The Meiji Government encouraged the idea that the Japanese people needed to be very serious, and to have complete respect for elders and “superiors,” if Japan was going to become a wealthy, powerful, “modern” country. This idea became part of nationalist ideology in the 1920s and 30s, and making any kind of joke that could be considered “subversive” became dangerous. But even at this time a minority of Japanese continued to make jokes about the Emperor, the military Government, the wars, and so on—and we know this because the Special High Police (Tokkō Keisatsu) kept detailed records. From these records we know, for example, that in 1943 a fifteen year old boy was arrested for writing the following on a telegraph pole: Announcement from the Imperial Headquarters [Daihon’ei]: Mr. Tōjō has only one right leg. In recent decades, Westerners have started to discover that the Japanese do have a strong sense of humour even if they do, in general, joke much less than the British. 4
Can you write me 1500-word papers (500-word for each topic)? Please find the attachment below for the assignment questions. I will provide you with the lecture notes.
FOOD IN ENGLAND INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS This is the first of the lectures on particular aspects of English culture. This lecture is about the SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE of food: it is interesting to know what people eat, but even more interesting to know why they eat it! In the first part of the lecture we’ll learn about roast beef, as by the 1700s this was established as “the” English food, and was given a lot of significance in English society. In Japan, by contrast, rice was the food that was made most significant, and we’ll compare the importance of beef in England with that of rice in Japan. In the final part of the lecture we’ll look at two other aspects of food culture in England: the development of modern (i.e. non-religious) vegetarianism there, and the establishment of “fish and chips” as a national dish in the late 1800s. If you don’t know about the Japanese imperial ritual of ōnamesai, or the British film director Alfred Hitchcock, find out before the class. REPUTATION … It is commonly said, even by the English themselves, that English cooking is the worst in the world. … Now that is simply not true … And yet it must be admitted that there is a serious snag from the foreign visitor’s point of view. This is, that you practically don’t find good English cooking outside a private house. (George Orwell, “In Defence of English Cooking,” 1945) QUANTITY OR QUALITY? … what emerges rather strikingly from the records and writings of foreign visitors to England [in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries] is the unanimity of their opinion that the Englishman of every class fed better than his counterpart on the Continent. (J. C. Drummond, The Englishman’s Food, 1939) THE BEGINNINGS OF MIDDLE-CLASS TASTE I have always heard they [the English] were great Flesh-eaters, and I found it true. I have known several People in England that never eat any Bread, and universally they eat very little: They nibble a few Crumbs, while they chew the Meat by whole Mouthfuls. … There are some Noblemen that have both French and English Cooks, and these eat much after the French Manner: But among the middling Sort of People, (which are those I spoke of before) they have ten or twelve Sorts of common Meats, which infallibly take their Turns at their Tables, and two Dishes are their Dinners; a Pudding, for instance, and a Piece of roast Beef… It is a common Practice, even among People of good Substance, to have a huge Piece of Roast-Beef on Sundays, of which they stuff till they can swallow no more, and eat the rest cold, without any other Victuals, the other six Days of the Week. (Henri Misson, Memoirs and Observations on a Journey in England, 1698) AN IDEOLOGY OF BEEF … Beef and Mutton. This was the Diet which bred that hearty Race of Mortals who won the Fields of Crecy and Agincourt. … The Tables of the ancient Gentry of this Nation were covered thrice a Day with hot Roast-Beef… The Common People of this Kingdom do still keep up the Taste of their Ancestors; and it is to this that we in a great Measure owe the unparalleled Victories that have been gained in this Reign: For I would desire my Reader to consider, what Work our Countrymen would have made at Blenheim and Ramillies, if they had been fed with Fricassees and Ragouts. … I in everything love what is simple and natural, so particularly in my Food; Two plain Dishes, with Two or Three good-natured, cheerful, ingenuous Friends, would make me more pleased and vain, than all that Pomp and Luxury can bestow. (Richard Steele, The Tatler, 21 March 1710) SIMPLE AND NATURAL FOOD Since around 1700, English people have often seen their food, and cooking, as “simple and natural” compared to more complex styles of food preparation in other countries, especially France. A good example is found in Alfred Hitchcock’s film Frenzy (1972). This is a story about a rapist and serial killer, but there is quite a lot of comedy linked to the detective who is trying to find the murderer. The detective loves “simple and natural” English food, but his wife is studying French cooking! Japanese Rice British Beef Associated with nationalism and national identity. Directly connected with the imperial system through rituals such as ōnamesai. Strong popular belief that Japanese rice is superior to all other kinds of rice. Belief that it makes people strong. Associated with patriotism and national strength. Strong belief that the British eat more of it than other peoples, and that it makes them strong. Strong association with religion. Rice believed to be the gift of the gods, and the most appropriate gift to the gods. Rice imagined as having a “soul.” No connection with religion. (Beef preferred to other foods simply because of its taste and protein content.) Seen as especially the food of the upper-class and social elites. Seen as especially the food of the middle-class. Quite deliberately NOT the food of the upper-class. Made politically significant by being used as medium of taxation and by all sorts of policies designed to benefit farmers. No connection with tax. Made politically significant by being adopted as a sign of middle-class identity. RICE AS ELITE FOOD … most scholars agree that rice was the staple food, qualitatively and quantitatively, valued by the elites—emperors, nobles, warriors, and wealthy merchants. The rice culture was ryōshu bunka, a culture of regional lords and elites in general. … In a broad sense it seems safe to conclude that for a long period rice was not available in sufficient quantity for the nonelite of Japan, including rice producing peasants. … Rice was the staple food only for the elite in central Japan, but ultimately it became the most desired food for most Japanese. (Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney, Rice as Self: Japanese Identities Through Time, 1993) VEGETARIANISM AS COUNTER-CULTURE Britain was the first country in the west to have a vegetarian “movement” and the first country in the world where vegetarianism became a powerful social force for non-religious reasons. In the middle 1700s the arguments began to be made that (i) humans are not “naturally” designed to eat meat; and (ii) it is immoral to kill animals simply to eat them. When economic arguments were added, vegetarianism became a philosophy that was hard to refute. The quantity of nutritious vegetable matter, consumed in fattening the carcass of an ox, would afford ten times the sustenance, undepraving indeed, and incapable of generating disease, if gathered immediately from the bosom of the earth. The most fertile districts of the habitable globe are now actually cultivated by men for animals … (Percy Bysshe Shelley, A Vindication of Natural Diet, 1813) The British Vegetarian Society, the first in the world, was founded in 1847. IMPORTED FOOD AND FISH AND CHIPS The rise in popularity of the fried fish-and-chip shop seems to have coincided with the new supplies of cheap cod (and, possibly, of vegetable fats and oils) which became available in the closing decades of the century. Its origins are obscure, but it seems likely that it grew out of the hot-pie shop, which was well known in early Victorian England: fish was first added as a side-line, but ultimately triumphed over its competitor. Mayhew reported in 1851 that fried fish was hawked around the London pubs in the form of sandwiches, but when the French chip was added is not recorded. Lancashire claims to be the birthplace of the combination, and it was in Oldham that the engineering firm of Faulkner and Co. began manufacturing ranges for chip frying between 1870 and 1875. At all events, the fish-and-chip shop had become socially and dietetically significant well before 1900; it was the outstanding example in England of a gastronomic institution designed principally for the working classes, and there can be no doubt that it made an important contribution to the protein content of the urban diet. (John Burnett, Plenty and Want: A Social History of Food in England, 1966) THE DARK SIDE OF FOOD OBSESSION: DID YOU KNOW? In the past Japanese parents used to tell their children that they would go blind if they left a single grain of rice in their bowl. In 2005 an international survey showed that Japan threw away far more food than any other country: ¥ 11,000,000,000,000 worth every year!! 5
Can you write me 1500-word papers (500-word for each topic)? Please find the attachment below for the assignment questions. I will provide you with the lecture notes.
ENGLAND AND JAPAN (2): ALLIES AND ENEMIES INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS This is a continuation of last week’s lecture. This week we’ll look at the historical relationship(s) between England and Japan from the 1890s to the present day. The key topics that we’ll study are the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 (one of the most significant dates in modern Japanese history), the Second World War, when Japan tried to destroy the British empire, and the representation of Japan in the modern British media. Make sure that you understand what “prisoners of war (POWs)” are. If you don’t know that Japan’s treatment of POWs in the Second World War has been very controversial, find out something about it before the class. “Art in Japan is living as art in Greece was living. It forms part and parcel of the very life of the people; every Jap is an artist at heart in the sense that he loves and can understand the beautiful. … In Japan the feeling for art is an essential condition of life.” (Mortimer Menpes, Japan, 1901) 1894: Britain is the first country to revise its “unequal” treaty with Japan, recognizing that “the time had come when dealings with Japan might be put on the same equal terms as exist between nations of European origin” (Edward Grey, British Foreign Office). Japan goes to war with China. 1902: Britain and Japan sign a formal treaty of alliance. This guarantee of military cooperation is very significant for both countries. Two years later Japan goes to war with Russia. 1905: Britain and Japan extend their treaty. A new clause says that: “Great Britain recognizes the right of Japan to take such measures of guidance, control and protection in Corea as she may deem proper and necessary to safeguard those interests.” Japan quickly starts to act much more aggressively in Korea. 1910: The Japan British Exhibition opens in London and attracts over 8,000,000 visitors. It confirms British views of “two Japans.” There is the old, beauty-loving, artistic Japan. There is also the modern, imperial, militaristic Japan. 1923: The Anglo-Japanese alliance is dissolved because of American pressure. Naval agreements allow Japan 60% of the fleet strength of Britain and America. 1941-5: Japan goes to war, claiming that it is “liberating” Asia from Britain. The Japanese treat the “liberated” peoples far more repressively than the British had done, and there is soon intense hostility to the Japanese in former British colonies. Thousands of British soldiers are captured by the Japanese and many of these die in forced labour camps. “In German prison camps, the POW death rate was only 4 percent. In Japanese prison camps, it was 27 percent. The Japanese camps were seven times more lethal” (from Gavan Daws, Prisoners of the Japanese, 1994). The British find this hard to forget. WHY DID THEY DO IT? WAS THERE SOMETHING “DISGRACEFUL” ABOUT BEING A PRISONER? “On the island of Attu in the Aleutians, the Japanese had a garrison of about twenty-five hundred. In May 1943 the Americans invaded in force. When it was obvious to the Japanese that they were doomed, more than a thousand of them made a banzai charge. They were mowed down. When the battle was over, the Americans found Japanese dead in heaps, blown up with their own grenades held against their stomachs. The Japanese doctors had shot their own wounded, or killed them with morphine injections. The total number of prisoners taken by the Americans was a couple of dozen. The word the Japanese used for what happened on Attu was gyokusai, meaning the smashing of the jewel, heroic death as supremely valuable, with a special Japanese beauty and poetry to it. For the rest of the war they kept on using the word.” (Gavan Daws) 1964: The Tokyo Olympic Games symbolizes Japan’s reentry into the international community. (Japan wins sixteen gold medals, Britain four.) 1969: Emperor Hirohito visits Britain. Large numbers of British people are furious. However, the visit marks a normalization of relationships at the diplomatic and commercial levels. Japanese products start to pour into Britain. 1980s: The British media stays fairly anti-Japanese, but the emphasis shifts from wartime atrocities to Japan’s apparent desire for economic domination. Points repeatedly emphasized are that: a) The Japanese accept low living standards and work to make their country rich; b) Japanese men work 6 or 7 days a week, do not take holidays, and even die from overwork (karoshi); c) Japan has a huge trade imbalance. There is fear that British (and other) workers simply cannot compete with the “obsessive,” “workaholic” Japanese. 1991: A big Japan Festival is held in Britain to promote interest in Japanese culture; it is described as “the biggest festival devoted to the arts and history of a foreign country ever to be presented in the UK.” A second Japan Festival is held in 2001. 1990s: The fact that Japan’s economic growth starts to slow down gradually leads to kinder feelings towards the Japanese. There is increasing interest in Japanese popular culture, including manga, animations, and TV shows. For example, the Japanese game show Takeshi’s Castle (風雲!たけし城), which was broadcast in Japan in the late 1980s, became popular in Britain in the late 1990s. Some Images of Japan and the Japanese that Many British People Have Mount Fuji, sumo, judo, karate, geisha, sushi, green tea, chopsticks, electronic products, cars and motorcycles, kimonos, Chinese characters (kanji), salarymen all dressed the same, workaholics, gangsters with missing fingers, high suicide rate, short-sightedness (wearing glasses), bad teeth, bowing, obsession with name brands, excessive politeness, great formality, karaoke, zen gardens, bonsai, sliding screens, Hokusai prints, origami, swords, superb trains, crowded cities, elderly politicians, men with sexual interest in young girls (buru sera), manga, violent movies, strong herd instinct. CULTURAL CONTRADICTIONS One of the strongest international images of the Japanese is that they are shy, quiet, not expressive, modest people who tend to dress in dark colours. One of the things that most strongly challenges this stereotype is Japanese television. As you know, this is often full of bright lights, bright colours, and expressive people shouting and exclaiming, etc. The BBC drama, Jonathan Creek, actually explored this contradiction in 2003. In the BBC story, “the number one show on Japanese television” is said to be a gameshow called Infidelity in which people are attached to a lie detector and asked questions about their sex lives. FILTHY RICH JAPAN: DID YOU KNOW? An investigation done by Goldman Sachs at the end of 2004 showed that the Japanese were buying 41% of all luxury brand goods sold in the world!! No other country came close. Second on the list was the U.S.A. with 17%. The whole of Europe counted for only 16%. A Japanese Government survey done in 1999 showed that the average Japanese family gave just 3,200 yen to charitable organizations (NPOs) in the course of a year. American families were giving 100,000 yen—over thirty times more. 4
Can you write me 1500-word papers (500-word for each topic)? Please find the attachment below for the assignment questions. I will provide you with the lecture notes.
ENGLAND AND JAPAN (1): A SHARED HISTORY? INTRODUCTION—READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE THE CLASS This is the first of two lectures in which we will look at the historical relationship(s) between England and Japan. The first lecture covers the period from the first description of Japan written in English (1577) to the 1880s. By studying the relationship between the two countries we can learn a lot about both of them, and the different positions they have occupied in the world. We will focus in particular on the IMAGE of Japan that English people have had at different times: this will help you understand how (and why) the “West” looks at Japan today. In this first lecture I will suggest that in the late 1800s Japan deliberately marketed itself as an “old-fashioned” country of arts and crafts, and that this has caused problems of understanding ever since. Make sure that you understand what a “balance of trade,” or “trade balance” is. If you don’t know about the “Opium Wars” between Britain and China, find out before the class. 1543: The Portuguese “discover” Japan by accident. 1577: The first account of Japan in English: “The extreme part of the knowen worlde unto us, is the noble Ilande Ciapan, written otherwise Iapon and Iapan. … The people tractable, ciuile, myttye, courteous, without deceyte, in virtue and honest conuersation exceeding all other nations lately discouered, but so muche standing upon theye reputation, that theyr chiefe Idole may be thought honour. … the nation is oppressed with scarcitie of al thynges necessarye, and so poore, that even for miserie they strangle theyr owne children, preferring death before want. These felowes do nether eate nor kyll any foule. They lyve chiefely by fyshe, hearbes, and fruites, so healthfully, that they dye very olde.” (from Richard Willies, The History of Trauayle in the West and East Indies) 1600: A Dutch ship arrives in Japan by accident. On the ship is William Adams (1564-1620), an Englishman. Adams becomes an adviser and commercial agent to Tokugawa Ieyasu. 1613-23: An English trading station is established at Hirado, Japan. It is not a success, as the English find little demand for their cloth in Japan. 1639: All foreigners are expelled from Japan, except very restricted numbers of Chinese and Dutch traders. 1673: English ships sail to Japan in an attempt to re-open trade. They are refused, because “our King was married with the daughter of Portugal their enemy … and for no other reason.” (from the official English report on the mission) 1727: Englebert Kaempfer’s History of Japan, originally written in German, is published in English. The translator, J. G. Scheuchzer, dedicates it to King George I: “It [the History] gives an account of a mighty and powerful empire, which owes its greatness to itself, and the flourishing condition it is in, to its being debarred all communication with other nations. … It describes a valiant and invincible nation, a polite, industrious and virtuous people, enriched by a mutual commerce among themselves, and possessed of a country, on which nature hath lavished her most valuable treasures.” 1791—: A few British ships visit Japan hoping for opportunities to trade. They are only successful (in 1813 and 1814) when trading under Dutch colours. 1839-42: Britain fights and easily wins the first “Opium War” in China, leading to widespread fear of Britain in Japan. 1842-53: Some British diplomats start to talk about “opening” Japan to British trade. 1854: Commodore Matthew Perry succeeds in “opening” Japan. Britain goes to war with Russia, leading to the first formal Anglo-Japanese agreement since the early 1600s: “it affords the means of cultivating a friendly understanding with the Government and People of an extensive Empire, whose Neutrality in War and Friendship at all times, are matters of vital importance to British Interests in the Adjacent Seas.” (Sir James Stirling’s official report) 1858: Lord Elgin, a British diplomat, sails to Edo and makes a commercial treaty with Japan (almost identical to the one the United States already had). The following year a British Consul is appointed in Japan, and a formal diplomatic relationship begins. 1862: At the International Exhibition in London over 600 Japanese art objects are exhibited from the collection of Rutherford Alcock, the British Consul in Japan. They create a sensation among the British public, and start a fashion for Japanese things. 1868—: The Meiji Restoration makes Japan much more willing to trade. Britain becomes Japan’s major trading partner. Britain sells industrial hardware to Japan. Japan sells art objects, china, fabrics etc. to Britain. Until 1914 the balance of trade is very much in Britain’s favour. Japan’s Trade in 1902 COUNTRY EXPORTS (YEN) IMPORTS (YEN) Britain British India Hong Kong 17,346,149 (6.72%) 13,336,895 (5.16%) 25,876,059 (10.01%) 50,364,029 (18.53%) 50,977,168 (18.76%) 2,454,881 (0.90%) Above Three Total 56,559,103 (21.89%) 103,796,078 (38.19%) United States France Germany 80,232,805 (31.06%) 27,283,458 (10.56%) 4,737,029 (1.83%) 48,652,825 (17.90%) 4,745,776 (1.75%) 25,812,921 (9.50%) “The triumph of export ware was the first major success of modern Japan. The determination of those Japanese engaged in the job of bringing Japan into the modern world ensured that, through the great exhibitions, demand was stimulated and, through the development of a new factory-based export ware industry, demand could be satisfied. It was an astonishing achievement.” (Olive Checkland, Japan and Britain after 1859, 2003) 1885: A Japanese Village is opened in Knightsbridge, London, designed to promote interest in Japan and Japanese products. The Mikado, a musical by W. S. Gilbert (writer) and Arthur Sullivan (composer) opens in London and is a huge success, becoming the longest-running theatrical show in the world (672 performances). 4

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