1. Discuss what performance management is and how it influences effective teams.
2. Review table 11.1, define leadership behaviors (in your own words) and note which behaviors are beneficial at specific organizational activities (example: project planning, leading coworkers, etc…).  Please note at least five organizational activities and be specific when responding.
3. Note at least two organizational capabilities and compare and contrast each.Human Resource Development Review
2016, Vol. 15(3) 340 –358

© The Author(s) 2016
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DOI: 10.1177/1534484316664812


Theory and Conceptual Article

The Cultural Evolution of
Talent Management: A
Memetic Analysis

Stephen Swailes1

Using the concept of memes as cultural transmitters and replicators, this article
explores the origins of a talent meme and the subsequent evolution of talent
management (TM). The sociogenesis of TM is traced through historic developments
in management thinking. The rise of individualism in the late 20th century created
the conditions for the birth of TM, and the proliferation of the meme since birth
is analyzed. The meme reproduces through its psychological appeal and the logic
of itself, and the article uses an established approach to reveal cultural rather than
rational explanations for TM. Five reasons for the attractiveness, survival, and
replication of the talent meme in business organizations are identified. They are
salience with business conditions, lack of a competing meme, ambiguity, complexity
reduction, and enhanced control over a powerful group. Understanding more about
the psychological attractors attached to the talent meme forms part of an expanded
research agenda.

talent management, memetics, innovation diffusion, organizational change


As a distinctive approach to human resource management, the phrase “talent manage-
ment” (TM) first appeared in the 1990s (Casse, 1994; Istvan, 1991) and now attracts a
strong practitioner and research following (Lawler, 2008; Silzer & Dowell, 2010;
Sparrow, Scullion, & Tarique, 2014). Although it can take many forms, it typically

1University of Huddersfield, UK

Corresponding Author:
Stephen Swailes, The Business School, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1
3DH, UK.
Email: s.swailes@hud.ac.uk

664812 HRDXXX10.1177/1534484316664812Human Resource Development ReviewSwailes



Swailes 341

concerns the identification, development, and deployment of employees deemed to
have above average potential to contribute to an organization. The primary variation
involves a broadly elitist approach toward identifying high-performing and high-
potential employees and providing them with a differentiated management experience
to that enjoyed by the majority workforce. This may be complemented by a robust
approach to managing employees whose performance falls below expectations which
is necessary, in a “hard” TM mind-set, to liberate the talents of employees that poorly
performing managers are suppressing (Michaels, Handfield-Jones, & Alexrod, 2001).

The idea of memes was introduced by Richard Dawkins (1976) as an analogy to
genes and the ways that genes replicate and survive thrReview of Public Personnel Administration
2014, Vol. 34(2) 174 –195

© 2013 SAGE Publications
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DOI: 10.1177/0734371X13510853



Does Leadership Style
Make a Difference? Linking
HRM, Job Satisfaction, and
Organizational Performance

Brenda Vermeeren1, Ben Kuipers1,
and Bram Steijn1

With the rise of New Public Management, public organizations are confronted
with a growing need to demonstrate efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In this
study, we examine the relationship between public organizational performance and
human resource management (HRM). Specifically, we focus on job satisfaction as a
possible mediating variable between organizational performance and HRM, and on
the influence of a supervisor’s leadership style on the implementation of Human
Resource (HR) practices. Drawing on a secondary analysis of data from a national
survey incorporating the views of 6,253 employees of Dutch municipalities, we tested
our hypotheses using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that (a)
job satisfaction acts as a mediating variable in the relationship between HRM and
organizational performance and (b) a stimulating leadership style has a positive effect
on the amount of HR practices used, whereas (c) a correcting leadership style has no
effect on the amount of HR practices used.

HRM, leadership style, job satisfaction, organizational performance, public sector,
Dutch municipalities


During the last three decades, public sector performance has become an increasingly
important issue. With the rise of New Public Management, targets, performance, and

1Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Corresponding Author:
Brenda Vermeeren, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Room M7-13, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam,
The Netherlands.
Email: vermeeren@fsw.eur.nl

510853 ROP34210.1177/0734371X13510853Review of Public Personnel AdministrationVermeeren et al.



Vermeeren et al. 175

a more business-oriented management approach have come to play central roles within
the public sector (Boyne, Meier, O’Toole, & Walker, 2006; Osborne & Gaebler, 1992;
Pollitt & Bouckaert, 2004). Several innovations in the field promised to increase the
quality of public service while reducing its costs. However, research into human
resource management’s (HRM) contributions to these developments in the public sec-
tor has been scarce (Boyne, Poole, & Jenkins, 1999; Gould-Williams, 2003). This
neglect persists despite the fact that employees (those who deliver public services) are
crucial to achieving superior public performance. High-quality services require highly
qualified and motivated personnel (Batt, 2002).

Based on numerous studies in the private sector, we can concludeAdvances in Developing Human

14(4) 566 –585
© 2012 SAGE Publications

Reprints and permission:

DOI: 10.1177/1523422312455610

455610 ADHR14410.1177/1523422312455610Adva
nces in Developing Human ResourcesKim and McLean

1Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
2McLean Global Consulting, Inc., USA

Corresponding Author:
Sehoon Kim, Educational Administration and Human Resource Development, Texas A&M University, 4226
TAMU College Station, TX 77843, USA
Email: shkim2077@gmail.com

Global Talent
Management: Necessity,
Challenges, and the Roles
of HRD

Sehoon Kim1 and Gary N. McLean2


The Problem.
Despite increasing attention in business, talent management in global contexts has not
been explored adequately in HRD. Most studies related to global talent management
explain only part of it and do not provide an integrative understanding of what is going
on globally in talent management in an HRD perspective.
The Solution.
This article proposed an integrative conceptual framework for global talent
management that involves the necessity, challenges, and roles of HRD. Considering
cross-cultural viewpoints and multinational enterprise issues in HRD, the study
analyzed why talent management is necessary and the challenges of developing
talent. Finally, proposals were made for developing global talent and roles for HRD
researchers and practitioners.
The Stakeholders.
The results of this study will provide insights or guides for researchers interested
in talent management/development and HR practitioners involved in a multinational


talent management, globalization, talent development, high potential, HRD challenges,
HRD roles


Kim and McLean 567

Since The War for Talent (Michaels, Handfield-Jones, & Axelrod, 2001), business
practitioners have enthusiastically embraced talent management (TM; Iles, Preece, &
Chuai, 2010; Lewis & Heckman, 2006). Despite the recent shrinking employment
caused by the economic recession, interest in talent in business has extensively
increased with the unprecedented global competition (Athey, 2008; Scullion,
Collings, & Caligiuri, 2010) because such talent is regarded as generating great ben-
efits and value for the organization (Tarique & Schuler, 2010). The business para-
digm has shifted from marketing and finance to “talentship” (Boudreau & Ramstad,
2005, p. 21).

As the world economy continues to globalize, organizations continue to increase
their international profits and intensify their overseas investments (Guthridge &
Komm, 2008). As this occurs, the importance of global talent in organizations has
also been increasing. Managing and developing necessary global talent are regarded
as among a company’s priorities for sustainable growth (Collings, McDonnell, &
Scullion, 2009; Guthri-

Journal ofGeneral Management
Vol. 26 No.2 Winter 2000

A Reappraisal ofHRM
Models in Britain
Pawan s. Budhwar

Human Resource Management is still struggling to find a strategic role.

For a better understanding ofthe subject, both management practitioners
and scholars need to study human resource management (HRM) in
context [1]. The dynamics of both the local/regional and international/
global business context in which the firm operates should be given a
serious consideration. Similarly, there is a need to use multiple levels of
analysis when studying HRM: the external social, political, cultural, and
economic environment; and the industry. Examining HRM out-of-context
could be misleading and fail to advance understanding. A key question is
how to examine HRM in context? One way is by examining the main
models of HRM in different settings. However, there is no existing
framework that can enable such an evaluation to take place. An attempt
has been made in this paper to provide such a framework and empirically
examine it in the British context.

This paper is divided into three parts. Initially, it summarises the
main developments in the field of HRM. Then, it highlights the key
emphasis of five models of HRM (namely, the ‘Matching model’; the
‘Harvard model’; the ‘Contextual model’; the ‘5-P model’; and the
‘European model’ ofHRM). Lastly, we will address the operationalisation
of the key issues and emphases of the aforementioned models by
examining their applicability in six industries ofthe British manufacturing
sector. The evaluation highlights the context specific nature of British

This introduction looks at the need to identify the core emphasis of
the main HRM models that could be used to examine their applicability in
different national contexts. Developments in the field of HRM are now
well documented in the literature [2, 3]. The debate relating to the nature
ofHRM continues today, although the focus of the debate has changed
over a period of time. At present, the contribution ofHRM in improving

Pawan S. Budhwar is Lecturer in Organizational Behaviour and
HRM at CardiffBusiness School, UK.

Journal ofGeneral Management
Vol. 26 No.2 Winter 2000

the firm’s performance and the overall success of any organization
(alongside other factors) is being highlighted in the literature [4, 5].

Alongside these debates, a number of important theoretical
developments have taken place in the field of HRM. For example, a
number ofmodels ofHRM have been developed over the last 15 years or
so. Some of the main models are: the ‘Matching model’; the ‘Harvard
model’; the ‘Contextual model’; the ‘5-P model’; and the ‘European
model’ ofHRM [6, 7]. All these models have been developed in the US
and the UK. These models ofHRM are proj ected to be useful for analysis
both between and within nations. However, the developers of these
models do not provide clear guidelines regarding their operationalisation
in different contexts. Moreover, it is inte

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